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Sunday, May 3, 2020 | History

2 edition of Cocoa swollen-shoot virus found in the catalog.

Cocoa swollen-shoot virus

S. T. Aveau

Cocoa swollen-shoot virus

a threat to the cocoa industry of Western Samoa

by S. T. Aveau

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Published by Pestology Centre, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, B. C .
Written in English

  • Cacao -- Diseases and pests.

  • Edition Notes

    StatementS. T. Aveau.
    SeriesPest management papers -- no. 14.
    The Physical Object
    Paginationix, 62 p. :
    Number of Pages62
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL17892951M

      CA: Cocoa swollen shoot virus disease is one of the main factors limiting the productivity of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in West Africa. Because the only way to treat infected trees is to cut and replant them, the development of feasible prevention measures is very important. Media in category "Cacao swollen-shoot virus" This category contains only the following : Caulimoviridae. Mr Vinning said the price was likely to increase because of the challenges presently faced by the West African cocoa farmers such as aging trees, aging farmers, lack of new land, government involvement, the cocoa swollen-shoot virus that decreases cocoa yield and harmattan.

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Cocoa swollen-shoot virus by S. T. Aveau Download PDF EPUB FB2

Ivory Coast, the world's biggest cocoa producer, announced Monday it would rip uphectares (, acres) of cocoa trees in a bid to roll back a plant virus called swollen shoot.

Cocoa swollen shoot virus disease (CSSVD) has plagued cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) production in West Africa for more than eight decades (Dzahini-Obiatey et al., ).CSSVD is caused by the cocoa swollen shoot virus (CSSV), belonging to the genus Badnavirus (Lot et al., ).CSSVD only occurs in West Africa, and has been reported in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Togo (Fig Cited by: 7.

The cacao swollen shoot virus disease (CSSVD) which is considered the most economically important cocoa virus disease could account for 15–50% yield loss if the severe strains are involved in infections [2, 3].Since the discovery of this important disease in Ghana, it has been managed through the “cutting out and replanting system” with the aim of removing sources of inoculum from Author: George A.

Ameyaw. The cocoa swollen shoot virus disease (CSSVD) caused by the Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) has for many years been a major constraint to cocoa (Theobroma cacao) production in West virus (CSSV) is a member of the Badnavirus (bacilliform DNA virus) genus and is semi-persistently transmitted through the feeding action of several mealybug species (Pseudococcidae, Homoptera).Cited by: The cocoa swollen shoot virus disease (CSSVD) caused by the Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) has for many years been a major constraint to cocoa (Theobroma cacao) production in West Africa.

Abstract. Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) is the only virus disease of cacao that is prevalent and damaging. CSSV is a dsDNA virus of the genus Badnavirus and the family Caulimoviridae transmitted by several species of mealybugs. The historical emergence of the disease is closely associated with the establishment of cacao cultivation in West Africa as it appeared soon after the Cited by: 4.

The region’s changing climate also seems to have exacerbated a more immediate threat to the crop’s cultivation: cocoa swollen shoot virus disease, which is spread by a pencil eraser-sized. Although Cocoa swollen shoot virus could be detected in 53 of 98 cocoa seedlings analysed (Quainoo et al., ) and Cucumber mosaic virus was detected in 27 of seedlings investigated (Yang et.

The disease caused by cacao swollen shoot virus has spread and is causing incalculable damage to the cocoa industry in Ghana. Control measures have largely been by eradication methods or by control of mealybug vectors. Cultural practices to control the disease are discussed.

It is concluded that present control measures need to be quickly applied more by: Like other crops cocoa can be attacked by a number of pest species including fungal diseases, insects and rodents - some of which (e.g. frosty pod rot and cocoa pod borer) have increased dramatically in geographical range and are sometimes described as "invasive species".

A study was undertaken to determine whether cocoa swollen shoot virus is transmitted by seeds, to improve the robustness of quarantine procedures for international exchange and long term conservation of cocoa germplasm.

PCR/capillary electrophoresis, using cocoa swollen shoot virus primers designed from the most conserved regions of the six Cited by: About 17 per cent of the country's cocoa farms have been affected by the Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus Disease (CSSVD), thus threatening cocoa production.

Five major diseases, namely witch's broom (WB), black pod [Phytophthora pod rot (PP)], moniliasis pod rot (MO), cocoa swollen shoot virus (CSSV) and vascular streak die back (VSD), affect the crop, causing a yield loss of about 40% per year.

The major pests of cocoa are the mirids Distantiella theobroma and Sahlbergella singularis. According to COCOBOD, their checks have revealed that that out of a total of million hectares of cocoa farms surveyed,hectares have been affected by the swollen shoot virus disease.

Out of this, the Western North Region alone hadhectares of affected farms. Cocoa Communities in Côte d'Ivoire 08 BP Abid Côte d’Ivoire OP Companion tree species affect the spread of the Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus disease (CSSVD) in cocoa agroforestry systems in South-West Cote d’Ivoire Lucien Dibya, Marie-Paule N’Guessana, Jane Kahiaa, Ermias.

The capsid, black pod and swollen shoot cacao diseases in Ghana, Francis K. Danquah Iowa State University Follow this and additional works at: Part of theAfrican History Commons,Agricultural Economics Commons,Economic History Author: Francis K.

Danquah. existence of eight serogroups of cocoa swollen shoot virus. Annals of Applied Biology – Muller E, Jacquot E, Yot P. Early detection of cacao swollen shoot virus using the polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Virological Methods Identification of vectors of cocoa swollen shoot virus and control methods: A perspective from Côte d’Ivoire Presented by Pierre Walet N’GUESSAN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON THE COCOA SWOLLEN SHOOT DISEASE 26 - 28 NOVEMBER –.

The 'cutting-out' policies in place in Ghana since the mids which attempted to control the cocoa swollen shoot disease resulted in the removal of over million trees up to (Ollennu et al., ).

Over 10 million infected trees which still required 'cutting out' had been identified in the field by and this number continues to. Modelling cocoa swollen shoot virus from around the perimeter and much less frequently by 'jump spread' to initiate new outbreaks including some far from the source (Thresh ; Thresh, Owusu & Ollennu ).

These features suggest that swollen shoot disease should be amenable to control by eradication procedures and that the risk. Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus – CSSV 22 Frosty Pod Rot – Crinipellis roreri 26 Mirids (Capsids) – sap-sucking bugs 30 Mistletoes – plant parasites of cocoa 36 Stem Borers 38 Termites or White Ants 42 Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) – Oncobasidium theobromae 46 Witches Broom – Crinipellis perniciosa   PCR/capillary electrophoresis, using cocoa swollen shoot virus primers designed from the most conserved regions of the six published cocoa genome sequences, allowed the detection of cocoa swollen shoot virus in all the component parts of cocoa seeds from Cited by: Status of cocoa swollen shoot virus disease in Nigeria Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus Disease (CSSVD) is one of the major diseases affecting cocoa production in West Africa, especially Ghana.

The lack of any published article on the continued presence or absence of Cited by: Objectives: Evaluate the impact of cocoa swollen shoot virus disease (CSSVD) and characterize the virus in naturally infected cocoa farms.

Methodology and Results: Observations were carried out in cocoa plantations infected by swollen shoot in three villages (N'zikro, and Sokobakro Kouamékro) from Bazre' locality in west-central of Côte d': K. Kouakou, B. Kébé, N. Kouassi, A. Anno, S. Aké, E. Muller. Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) is a major pathogen that has seriously constrained cocoa production in West Africa, particularly Ghana and Nigeria.

The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of cocoa somatic embryogenesis to produce virus-free clonal propagation material both for replanting and to facilitate the safe international exchange of germplasm. Cacao swollen shoot and cacao mottle leaf viruses are both transmitted by mealybugs (Posnette, ), have similar particles and properties (Brunt et al.,; Kenten & Legg, ), and are now known to be serologically distantly related (Kenten & Legg, personal communication).

It is uncertain, therefore, whether cacao mottle leaf virus should. Widespread infection by diseases, such as the Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus, is another concern. This disease is spread via mealy bugs that feed on the cocoa plants.

It is thought that it was first transferred into cocoa plants when natural forests were cleared and its mealy bug vectors adopted the cocoa trees as their new hosts [ 17 ].Author: Dave Reay. #COCOAHERO. Febru Last year we featured Dr.

Mfegue Crescence Virginie, an agronomist from Cameroon, in our #FoodHeroes g as the Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus Program Manager for the World Cocoa Foundation in West Africa, she explained how this viral disease can be damaging for farmers, resulting in more than 15% of global cocoa losses.

The Swollen Shoot Virus is not native to cocoa but jumped into the cocoa from trees that grew in the rain forests of W. Africa (e.g. Cola chlamydanta, Ceiba pentandra, Adansonia digitata, Cola gigantean and Sterculia tragacantha). The virus is a badnavirus within the family Caulimoviridae.

Investigations were undertaken on the use of somatic embryogenesis to generate cocoa swollen shoot virus (CSSV) disease free clonal propagules from infected trees. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) capillary electrophoresis revealed the presence of CSSV in all the callus tissues induced from the CSSV-infected Amelonado cocoa trees (T1, T2 and T4).Cited by: Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus Disease (CSSVD) is one of the major factors limiting cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) productivity in West Africa.

The only cure for CSSVD is to cut out visibly infected trees and the official eradication campaign in Ghana has cut out more than million trees since 80 years of research on preventive control measures have mainly focused on resistance breeding, mild Cited by: 7. Definition of cocoa in the Idioms Dictionary.

cocoa phrase. What does cocoa expression mean. The survey also identified the cocoa swollen shoot virus as the most devastating disease attacking crops.

Perilious time for cocoa. The bottom line: coffee-table book; coffin. PflKrankh. 4/88 Cocoa swollen shoot: An archetypal crowd disease Fig. Gradients in the spread of cocoa virus diseases.

(a) The distribution of swollen shoot infected trees in relation to distance from the boundary of a 10 ha planting near Adonkwanta in a severely affected part of the Eastern Region of Ghana (Benstead ).

J Gen Microbiol. Aug; SOME PROPERTIES OF COCOA SWOLLEN-SHOOT VIRUS. BRUNT AA, KENTEN RH, NIXON HL. PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Cited by: Along with weather issues, cacao plants are falling prey to nasty fungal diseases and other plant-health issues.

The Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus is infesting cacao farms, putting chocolate crops in danger. Between the weather and the plant disease, scientists are Author: Erica Loop.

The executive director of Ghana's Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus Control Unit, Francis Nsiah, told IPS in an interview, "COPAL is assisting the cocoa-producing countries in the region to combat the.

Five major diseases of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), Phytophthora pod rot (black pod), witches broom, swollen shoot virus, vascular streak dieback and monilia pod rot, account for over 40% annual loss of cocoa. Correct identification of plant pathogens is critical and fundamental to population genetics, epidemiological studies and the Author: Dele Adeniyi.

Buy Cocoa swollen-shoot virus: A threat to the cocoa industry of Western Samoa (Simon Fraser University. Pestology Centre. Pest management papers) by Aveau, Sofara T (ISBN:) from Amazon's Book Store.

Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible : Sofara T Aveau. Though fruit production is slightly reduced in the year of infection,significant yield losses is noticed after a few agent: Cocoa swollen shoot virus (CSSV), Theobroma virus- 1or Cocoa mottle leaf virus.

The virus particles are bacilliform, notenveloped and 28 x nm in size. Common papaya diseases and pests plus how farmers can arrest spread. transmit Cocoa swollen shoot virus. A pictorial book on these papaya problems will be available @ in Author: RICHARD MULWA.

Ghana and Israel have signed a cooperation agreement to combat the Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus Disease (CSSVD). Ghana is the world’s second-largest producer of cocoa, the chief ingredient in chocolate. However, a myriad of challenges including diseases such as the CSSVD have been militating against annual production targets.

In a renewed bid to boost production [ ].1 History, origin and taxonomy of cocoa, 1. Introduction, 1. History of cocoa, 2.

Taxonomy of cocoa, 5. Morphological and varietal characteristics of cocoa, 6. The cocoa plant, 6. Varietal effects on cocoa bean flavour, The concept of this book, 2 World cocoa production, processing and chocolate consumption.The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is an erect palm in the family Arecaceae which is grown its fruits, used primarily for the extraction of coconut oil for use in coconut palm has an erect or slightly curved stem which grows from a swollen base.

The stem .